Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a component of the agro ecosystem management technology for sustainable crop production. It is knowledge intensive system and background information regarding the pest, abiotic and biotic factors agro ecosystem and management tactics required for execution of IPM programmes.
Fruit Borer (Helicoverpaarmigera)
Identication:- The adult is stout and medium-sized moth and has a dark circular spot in the centre on the forewing. They lay small, single, and whitish round eggs on the trifoliate leaves beneath the topmost flower cluster. Eggs hatch in about 3-4 days and the first instars larvae initially feed on the leaves and migrate to the developing green fruit later.
Symptoms: - The larvae bore into the fruits with the posterior end outside the hole. Full grown Caterpillars show characteristic whitish and dark brown longitudinal stripes.
Under Open Conditions:
- Effective management can be done by adopting marigold as trap crop.
- Giving sprays of Ha NPV @ 250 LE /ha at 28,35 and 42 days after transplanting.
- Mechanical collection and destruction of bored fruit at periodic intervals (3-4 times) brings down the borer incidence to less than 2 per cent.
- In open conditions, if the incidence is high, remove infected leaves and spray Triazophos 40 EC (1ml) mixed with 7.5 g neem/l.
- Trichogramma brassiliensis 2,50,000/ha parasitized eggs (Inundtive release)
- Grown some tolerant varieties Arka vikas, Pusa Gaurav, Pusa early dwarf,Pujab Keshari, Punjab Chhuhara, Pant Bahar,
Under Protected Conditions:
- Spray Ha NPV at 250 LE/ha + 1% jaggery along with sticker (0.5 ml/litre) during evenings when the larvae are young.
- For grown up larvae spay Indoxacarb 14.5 SC @ 0.5 ml/l or Thiodicarb 75 WP @ 1g/l.
- Apply neem cake to furrows (open)/beds (polyhouse) @ 250 kg/ha at planting and repeat after 25 days.
- Spray neem seed powder extract 4% or neem soap 1% at 15-20 DAPS.
- Under protected conditions avoid frequent spraying of synthetic pesticides. At the most, one spray of Deltamethrin 2.8 EC @ 1ml/l or Cypermethrin 25 EC @ 0.5 ml/l or Triazophos 40 EC @ 2ml/l may be given, if required.
- Spraying the crops with Carbaryl (0.1%) or Cypermethrin (0.5ml/litre of water) at fortnightly intervals starting from 35 days after transplanting controls the pest.
Whitefly (Bemicia tabacii)
Whitefly is a well-known vector, which transmits tomato leaf curl virus. It has piercing and sucking mouthpart and both nymphs and adults feed on lower surface of the leaves causing deformation of young leaves. Whiteflies also excrete honeydew, causing sooty mold.Under protected conditions whiteflies become more persistent, which require extensive management practices as mentioned below.
- Raise nurseries in seedling trays under nylon nets or polyhouses.
- Remove the leaf curl infested plants as soon as disease symptoms are expressed. This helps in reducing source of inoculums of the disease.
- Spray Imidacloprid 200 SL (0.3ml/l) or Thiomethoxam 25 WP (0.3 g/l) in nursery at 15 days after sowing.
- Drench the base of the seedlings with Imidacloprid 200 SL (0.03ml/l) or Thiomethoxam 25 WP (0.3 g/l) before transplanting. If protreys are used for raising nursery, drench the protreys with the chemicals one day before transplanting.
- After transplanting give need-based sprays of Imidacloprid 20 SL (0.3ml/l) or Thiomethoxam
- 25 WP (0.3 g/l) at 15 days after planting and do not repeat after fruiting stage as this may leave harmful residues in fruits.
Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica)
Root-knot nematodes cause root galls on the feeder roots and sometimes affect the entire root system showing heavy galling. This affects the uptake of nutrition and water and the plants show wilting during warmer part of the day. This causes stunted plants with yellow foliage resulting in yield reduction.
- Use nematode resistant variety/hybrid if available that is Pusa 120, Arka Vardan ( FM hybrid-2)
- Follow crop rotation with marigold, wherever possible.
- Seed treatment with bio-pesticides- Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10g/kg seed.
- Nursery bed treatment with T. harzianum @ 50 g/ sq. m.
- For the management of nematodes in the main field apply 2 tons of farmyard manure enriched with T. harzianum and Paecilomyces lilacinus per acre before planting, along with 100-200 kg of neem or pongamia cake.
- Apply Carbofuran 3G @ 1 kg ai/ha at transplanting.
Serpentine Leaf Miner (Liromyza trifolii)
The tiny, metallic fly punctures the leaf lamina and feeds on the oozing sap. It lays eggs on the outer margin of leaves. Within 2-3 days, whitish maggots hatch out of these eggs and start mining the leaves and pupate in 6-10 days. Typical serpentine shaped tunnels are formed in the leaf lamina indicating the path of feeding by the maggots.
- Often the incidence starts from nursery itself. Hence, remove infected leaves at the time of planting or within a week of transplanting.
- Install yellow sticky traps coated with adhesive or sticky glue at crop canopy level for monitoring adult whitefly population.
- If the traps indicate the whitefly activity, spray Dimethoate 30EC @ 2ml/l or neem seed kernel
- Extract 4% (NSKE) or pongamia or neem oil (8-10 ml/l) or neem soap (10g/l).
Red Spider Mites (Tetranychus urticae)
Red spider mites thrive under high temperature, dry weather and are more serious under protected conditions. They are generally found on the lower surface of older leaves. However, when the infestation is very high they attack all parts of the plant and are observed in colonies covered by white-silky webs. Adults and nymphs lacerate the leaves causing yellowing and discoloration.
- Remove and destroy the affected leaves.
- Under open conditions, spray Dicofol 18.5 EC @ 2.5 ml or wettable sulphur 80 WP @ 3g/l. Spray lower leaves and lower leaf surface thoroughly as mites are generally observed there.
- Under polyhouse conditions spray need-based application of acaricides like Abamectin 1.9 EC @ 0.5 ml/l or Dicofol 18.5 EC @ 2.5 ml/l or Fenazaquin 10 EC @ 1 ml/l in rotation with plant products like pongamia oil or neem oil (8-10 ml/l) or neem soap (10 g/l).
Shoot and Fruit Borer (Leucinode orbonalis)
Shoot and fruit borer cause a serious damage to the fruits leading to severe reduction in the yield. The damage to the fruits starts soon after transplanting and continues till harvest of the fruits. The adult female lays eggs on the ventral surface of the leaves, flower buds and on young fruits. Short pinkish larva of the pest initially bore into the terminal shoots resulting in withering and drying of the shoot. In the later stage, it bores into the young fruits by making holes and feeds inside which makes the fruits unfit for consumption.
- Use nylon net barrier for raising nurseries to eliminate pest incidence coming from nursery to main field.
- Cut and destroy wilted insect damaged shoot tips during pre-fl owering and fl owering period at weekly intervals.
- Regularly destruction of larvae in swollen damaged fl ower buds and fruits after each harvest is compulsory.
- Grow all round barrier crops like maize.
- Use of water traps loaded with pheromone @ 30 /Acre can reduce the pest incidence to minimum level.
- Spray Bacillus thuringiensis formulation (1%) at weekly interval followed by release of
- Trichogramma chilonis @ 2,50,000 /ha (50,000 / release -5 times at weekly intervals, starting from fl owering).
- Spraying the crops with Carbaryl (0.1%) or Cypermethrin (0.5ml/litre of water) at fortnightly intervals starting from 35 days after transplanting controls the pest. Best results are obtained when all the affected fruits are removed before spraying.
- some tolerant varieties Punjab Barsati, Punjab Chamkila, Pusa Purple Round Kalyanpur-2
- Grown Intercropping brinjal+coriander.
Epilachna Beetle (Epilachna vigintioctopunctata)
The yellowish coloured grubs and adults feed voraciously on the leaves and tender parts of the plant and often cause serious damage when they appear in numbers. Heavy infestation result in leaf skeletonization. Pupation takes place on the plant itself.
- Collect and destroy adult beetles.
- Spray any contact insecticide like Carbaryl 50 WP @ 3g/l or 40 EC @ 1.5 ml/l if required.
Jassids (Amrasca biguttula biguttula)
Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the lower surface of the leaves. The infested leaf curl upward along the margins, which may turn yellowish and show, burnt up patches. They also transit mycoplasma disease like little leaf and virus disease like mosaic. Fruit setting is adversely affected by the infestation.
- Soil application of neem cake 250 kg/ha followed by sprays of NSPE 4% or neem soap 1% at 10 days interval.
- Spray of systemic insecticides like Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2ml/l or Imidacloprid 200 SL @ 0.3ml/l or Acephate 75 SP (1 g/l) at pre-flowering stage.
Chilli Thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis)
Thrips are minute insects with fringed wings, serious during dry periods of high temperature. Both adult and nymphs suck the sap from young developing leaves. Affected leaves curl upwards along the margin and get crinkled and reduced in size. They also feed on floral parts and fruits. Fruit damage result in rough brown patches affecting their quality and drastically reducing the market value.
- Apply neem cake @ 250 kg/ha to plant beds while planting and repeat after 30 days.
- Spray Acephate 75 SP@ 1.0g/l or Fipronil 5 SC @ 1ml/l or ethofenprox 10 EC @ 1ml/l in rotation.
- Spray Acephate 75 SP (0.5 gm) + pongamia oil (2ml) +1 ml sticker in one litre water after emulsifying (shaking thoroughly in a bottle)
Aphids (Aphis gossypi and Myzus persicae)
These are small green insects and suck the sap from tender leaves and fl ower buds. Excretion of honeydew by aphids promotes sooty mould growth, thereby reducing photosynthesis and fruit quality. Aphids also act as vectors for transmitting mosaic virus disease.
- Spray Acephate 75 SP @ 1g/l or Dimethoate 30 EC @ 2 ml/l in rotation when required.
- Remove all the virus affected plants and destroy.
Tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura and tomato fruit borer, H. armigera are also serious pest in chilli and capsicum. These affect the market value of the chilli crop to a great extent, if proper care is not taken.
- Spray specific NPV of the borer species.
- Inundative release of Trichogramma sp.
- Use marigold as trap crop (one row of marigold for every 18 rows of chilli) for managing H. armigera.
- Collect and destroy eggs masses and immature larvae of S. litura.
- Use poison baiting (10 kg rice fl our + 1kg of jiggery + 250 g of Methomyl 40 SP) for S. litura and repeat the baiting 2-3 times if necessary. For S. exigua, spray Indoxacarb 14.5 SC @ 0.75 ml/l or Spinosad @ 0.75 ml/l or Thiodicarb 75 WP@ 0.75 g/l.
- Sometimes tomato fruit borer and tobacco caterpillar may also attack capsicum under polyhouse. Same type management practices given under tomato.
Vijay Kumar Suryawanshi
Rural Agriculture Extension Officer, Agriculture Department,
District Bilaspur (C.G.) 495001