टिकाऊ खेती में बायोफर्टीलाइजर एक कम लागत का फायदे वाला नि‍वेश 

Biofertilizers are low cost, renewable sources of plant nutrients which supplements chemical fertilizers. These are nothing but selected or specific strains of beneficial soil microorganisms cultured in the laboratory and packed in a suitable carrier. They can be used either for seed treatment or soil application or liquid form. Biofertilizers generate plant nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorous through their activities in the soil or Rhizosphere and make available to plants in a gradual manner.

The side effects of indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers in agriculture can be summarized as disturbances in the soil reaction, development of nutrient imbalances in plants, increased susceptibility to pests and diseases, reduction in legume root nodulation and plant mycorrhizal associations, decrease in soil life and environmental hazards such as water pollution and soil humus reduction.

The realization of such detrimental effects of chemical fertilizers when used continuously in large quantities in the absence of organic components has triggered interest regarding the alternatives to supply the plant nutrients in an integrated manner giving rise to Integrated Plant Nutrient System [IPNS] in which, bio-fertilizers play a major role.

What is Biofertilizers

Biofertilizers are the preparation containing micro-organisms beneficial to crop production in terms of nutrient supply with respect to N and P which applied with seed or soil.

What Is Sustainable Agriculture

Sustainable Agriculture is the successful management of natural resources for Agriculture to satisfy changing human needs, while maintaining or enhancing the quality of the environment and conserving the natural resources.

It should be biologically feasible, ecologically stable, economically viable and socially acceptable.

How can we Achieve Sustainability

  1. Minimize external input use.
  2. Maximize benefits from natural processes.
  3. Optimize the use of internal resource.

Why should Bio-fertilizer be used.

The industrial processes of nitrogen fixation (INF) involving production of ammonia expensive which involves imports of raw materials. They are heavily reliant on fossil fuel utilising a vast proportion of our energy supplies. Due to constantly depleting petroleum based products, feed stock, the cost of chemical fertilizer is increasing day by day. The energy requirement of 1 kg. fertilizer is 11.2 kwh for nitrogen, 1.1 kwh for phosphorous and 1 kwh for potash. Other problems associated with chemical fertilizers is the subsidy burden which has risen from Rs. 375/- crores in 1981-82 to an estimated figure of 11000 crores in 1996-97.

Classification of biofertilizer

Bio-fertilizers may be broadly classified into three groups;

  • Nitrogenous bio-fertilizers
  • Phosphatic bio-fertilizers.
  • Organic matter decomposers

Common micro-organisms as Bio-fertilizers 

Name of the Biofertilizer                             

Contribution 

Beneficiaries

 Nitrogen

1)   Rhizobium {Symbiotic}

  • Fixes 50-30 kg N/ha
  • Leaves residual nitrogen
  • Increase yield by 10 –30%
  • Maintains soil fertility

Pulses legumes: Cowpea, Green gram, Black gram, Pea, Gram

Oil legumes: Groundnut, Soyabean

Fodder legumes: Berseem lucern

Fodder legumes: Subabul, Shisan, Wheat, Jowar, Bajra, Maize

2)   Azotobacter

  • Supplies 20-40mg N/g of carbon source
  • Promotion of growth substances like vitamins, B Group, IAA and Gibberellic acid
  • 10-15% increase in yield
  • Maintains soil fertility
  • Biological control of plant disease, suppresses plant pathogens

Mustard, sunflower, banana, sugarcane, grapes, papaya, water melon, tomato, chilly, lady finger, coconut, spices, fruit, flower, plantation crops, forest sp 

3.   Azospirillum

  • Fixes 20-40kg Nitrogen
  • Results in increase mineral and water uptake.
  • Root development
  • Vegetative growth and crop yield.

Rice, sugarcane, finger, millet, wheat, sorghum,baira etc.

 

4.   BGA

  • 20-30 kg N/ha in submerged rice fields.
  • Production of growth substances like auxins, IAA, giberellic acid

Rice

5.   Azolla

  • Fixes 40-80 kg N/ha
  • Used as green manure because of large bio-mass

Rice

 

Methods of application           

There are four types of methods for application of bio-fertilizers:

1) Seed treatment:

For inculation of cereals like rice, wheat, sorghum, maize etc.; and oilseeds like groundnut, sunflower, mustard, safflower, pulses like cowpea, green gram, black gram, soybean etc., seed treatment of bio-fertilizer is recommended. One packet {200g} is sufficient to treat 10-12 kg seed. On this basis the dose of bio-fertilizer per acre can be worked out, based on the seed rate.

Method:

  • Keep the seeds required for sowing one acre in a heap on a clean cemented floor or gunny bag.
  • Prepare culture suspension by mixing I packet {200g} bio-fertilizer in approx. 400 ml water {1:2}
  • Sprinkle the culture suspension on the heap of the seeds and mix by hand so that thin coating is uniformly applied to the seeds.
  • Spread the seeds under shade for sometime for drying and then sowing.
  • In place of water, rice glue { Kanji} can also be used for better results.

2)  Set treatment

This method is recommended generally for treating the sets of sugarcane, cut pieces of potato and the base of banana suckers.

Method:

  • Prepare culture suspension by mixing 1 kg {5 packets}of bio-fertilizer in 40-50 litres of water.
  • The cut pieces of planting material required for sowing one acre are kept immersed in the suspension for 30 minutes.
  • Bring out the cut pieces and dry them in shade for some time before planting. After planting, the field is irrigated within 24 hours.
  • For set treatment, the ratio of bio-fertilizer to water is approximately 1:50.

3)  Seedling treatment:

This method is recommended for crops like paddy, tobbaco, tomato, chilly, onion, cabbage, cauliflower etc.;

Method:

  • Prepare the suspension by mixing lkg {5 packets} bio-fertilizer culture in 10-15 litres of water.
  • Get the seedlings required for one acre and make small bundles of seedlings.Dip the root portion of these seedlings in this suspension for 15-30 minutes and transplant immidiately.
  • Generally, the ratio of inoculant and water is 1:10 {Approx}i.e. I kg. bio-fertilizer in 10 litres of water.
  • For vegetables like chilly, tomato, cabbage, cauliflower, 1 packet of bio-fertilizer is sufficient for O.I ha { 10000m2)land.

For flower and ornamental Plants:

These bio-fertilizers can also be used for flowers and ornamental plants like roses, jasmine, chrysanthemum, marigold, dahlias etc. Regarding the method of application, it is generally done by root dip method or by the cutting method.

For root dip method

Dissolve one packet of bio-fertilizer {200 g} in 2 litres of water which is sufficient to treat 200-300 plants. Similarly, one packet in 2 litres is sufficient to treat 200-300 sets under cutting method.

4) Soil application:

This method vary crop to crop depending on its duration. Generally, for a short duration {less than 6 months} crop, 10-15 packets {each of 200g} are mixed with 40-60 kg of well decomposed cattle manure or with 40-60 kg soil for one acre of land. The mixture of bio-fertilizer and cattle manure/soil sprinkled with water is then broadcasted into soil at the time of sowing or at the time of irrigation in standing crop. For long duration crop {perennial crop} 20-30 packets 0$ bio-fertilizer {each containing 200g} are mixed with 80-120 kg. cattle manure or soil per acre.

Application in standing crop

Perennial plants are prunned once in a year. After prunning, the soil in the bed is dug up with a fork with due care to avoid any damage to the roots. Apply a mixture of bio-fertilizer and FYM/soil by incorporating it into the soil followed by irrigation.

Summary of Methods

Sl.

Method of Application

Crops

Dose/packets/Acre

Water

Ratio

BF water

Soil

1

Seed application   

All crops sown through seeds 

200g bio-fert.

400 ml

1:2

***

2

Set treatment       

Sets of sugarcane base of banana

1 or 2kg

50 or 100 litres

1:50

***

 

3

Seedling method

Rice, tomato, chilly, cabbage, cauliflower & flower crops

1 kg

10 litre

1:10

****

4

Soil application   

All crops

2 kg

for wetting

***

40-50kg

Economics of Bio-fertilizers

  • Saving of 20-50 kg inorganic nitrogen per hectare.
  • One tone Rhizobium inoculants is equivalent to 100 tone of nitrogen.
  • One tone of BGA is equivalent to two tone of Nitrogen.
  • One tone Azotobacter and Azospirillum each is equivalent of 40 tones of nitrogen.
  • One tone of phosphate solubilizers are equivalent of 24 tones phosphorus.

Benefits

  1. Germination increase up to 20 percent. Improved seedling emergence and growth.
  2. Increase yield from 10 to 40 percent.
  3. Improve the quality of fruit and keeping quality.
  4. Saving of 25 to 35 percent inorganic fertilizers.
  5. Increase the availability and up take of N and P in plants.
  6. Improve the status of soil fertility maintain good soil health and crop productivity.
  7. Higher population of beneficial micro-organism in soil increase nutrient retention and availability leading to improve yields.
  8. Improve nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer efficiency.
  9. It is safe to handle and easy to apply.
  10. Leaves no harmful residues in plants or soil.
  11. Suppress harmful and pathogenic soil micro-organism.
  12. Composting waste matter and produce organic manure.
  13. They are compatible with organic manures, fertilizers and agro-chemicals.
  14. They are non- polluting and eco-friendly.
  15. Biofertilizers are also produce growth promote

Authors:

Manraj Yadav and Rajveer Yadav

Senior Research Fellow

Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur

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