Production Technology For The Organic Cultivation of Radish (Raphanus sativus)

Bindumathi Mohan

Radish is a vegetable rich in Vit C and supplies a variety of minerals. It contains glucose, pectin, pentosans, and isothiocynates3. It is used as vegetable, and as medicine

Season:

It grows best in cool to moderate climate. During hot weather, roots become tough and pungent before reaching full size.

Soil:

Best results are obtained on light friable loam soil. For early crop, sandy or sandy loams are preferred while in summer moist soil gives best result. Heavy soils produce misshapen roots with a number of small fibrous laterals.

Varieties

The varieties commonly used in Hosur area are: Pusa chetki
Pusa himani
Arka Nishant
Pusa Chetki short

Stage I - Land preparation

Prepare soil thoroughly with no clods.

Soil should not contain any un decomposed organic matter, as it will lead to forking..

Prevent water logging, as it will lead to collar rot.

Stage II - Seeds and sowing

Season: Cultivation can be done throughout the year. Favorable season in Hosur area is September to November. Sow seeds every 15-20 day interval for a continuous supply of tender fresh roots.

Seed rate: 9-12 Kg/Ha

Seed treatment:

Treat seeds first with Trichoderma 4gm/Kg of seeds the night before planting and dry in shade..

Next morning coat the treated seeds with bio-fertilizer slurry (Azotobacter 200 gm+200 gm Phospho bacteria+200 Gm K mobiliser) before planting.

Sow the seeds on ridges and furrows taking care to see that the seeds are on one side of each ridge keeping a distance of 45-60 cm initially in row and 6-8 cm a row after thinning.

Stage III - Manuring

A basal dose at the time of land preparation is to be given. At that time, add about 10 tons of Compost+200 Kg neem cake+1 kg trichoderma.

At the time of first earthing up about 15-20 days from sowing, Mix 1.5 kg azotobacter+1.5 Kg Phospho bacteria +1 Kg trichoderma + 100 kg Compost and then add into the soil between the rows. Take care to place the fertilizer 6.25 cm away from the stem and 2.5 cm deeper than the root zone.

Stage IV - Irrigation

First irrigation should be a pre-sowing one for good seed germination and plant stand.

Irrigation should be given twice a week.

Stage V - Weeding

One/two weedings with the first at the time of earthing up and second if necessary a week later is sufficient for the crop.

Stage VI - Plant protection (Disease and insect control, Spray schedule)

Disease/ insect

Symptoms

Bio-pesticide &Dosage

Alternaria raphani

Small yellowish raised lesions on leaves.

Spreads rapidly in wet climate leading to poor or no germination

Apply 3 kg of Trichoderma viridae along with 25 kg compost per acre

Spray Trichoderma viridae 3 grams per litre or Pseudomonas 5 grams per litre at 10th and 20th days after sowing

White rust (Albugo candida)

Disease symptoms appear on leaves and flowering shoots which become deformed and bear only malformed flowers.

It produces a white powdery substance on the under surface.

¨ Spray Trichoderma viridae 3 grams per litre or Pseudomonas 5 grams per litre at 10th and 20th days after sowing

RMV

Small circular chlorotic lesions in between and adjacent to veins is seen.

Little or no leaf distortion occurs.

There is severe yield loss.

Aphids are the vectors.

Remove and destroy affected plants 

periodical spray of 2 % Neem Seed Kernel Extract controls vector population

Spray butter milk 100 ml per litre

Aphids (Myzus persica, Brevicoryne brassicae)

Aphids are found on the leaves and suck the sap

Spray 3 % tobacco leaf extract two times at 10 days interval

Spray 3 % neem oil solution at weekly interval

Mustard saw fly (Athalia proxima)

Feed on the leaves of young plants,

When severe completely defoliates the plants leaving only the midribs

Spray 3 % tobacco leaf extract two times at 10 days interval

Spray 3 % neem oil solution at weekly interval

Stage VIII - Harvesting & Yield:

  • Roots are harvested at about 30-60 days.
  • Delay in harvest makes roots bitter and pithy
  • One light irrigation before harvest facilitates lifting of roots.
  • Yields around 15-20 tons/hectare can be obtained.

Authors:
Bindumathi Mohan
T.S. Srinivasan Centre For Rural Training
SIPCOT II, Bethalapalli
Hosur, Tamil Nadu 635109
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