Post Harvest Handling of Cut Flowers

P. Naveen Kumar

Floriculture has emerged as a viable diversification option in the agri-business. It is a rapidly expanding dynamic industry recording a growth rate of more than 15 per cent per annum in the last two decades.  Rapid urbanization, increased income levels and changes in social values resulted in increase of domestic market both for modern (cut flowers) as well as traditional (loose flowers) flowers significantly. Improvement in the general level of well being in the country and increased affluence particularly among the middle class is also another reason for increase in the volume of local flower market. The quantum of Indian floricultural exports, although, increased manifold since early nineties, still there is huge scope to become a key player in the world flower trade. The floriculture industry in India is characterized by growing traditional flowers (loose flowers) and cut flowers under open field conditions and protected environment conditions respectively. India also has a strong dry flower industry, which contributes a major share to the overall trade. Other segments like fillers, potted plants, seeds and planting material, turf grass industry and value added products also contribute a share in the overall growth of the floriculture sector. At present, the area under flower crops in India is 167000 ha with a production of 9.87 lakh MT of loose flowers and 4798 million numbers of cut flowers (NHB Indian Horticulture Database 2009-10).

Flowers are highly perishable unlike other horticultural or agricultural crops. Owing to poor keeping quality the post harvest losses in floriculture are significantly higher than any other sector. Although there has been significant increase in the area, production and productivity of flower crops in the last two decades, there is an urgent need to minimize the huge post harvest losses in terms of the value of the produce which are estimated to be 30-40 per cent of farm value. The post harvest behavior of flowers is an outcome of the physiological processes, occurring in leaves, stem, flower bud, leafless peduncle or scape connecting bud to the stem.  Some of these processes may act independently to affect the senescence and vase life of cut flowers but most of them are inter-related. The nature and extent of post harvest damage is typical for each crop or cultivar. The post harvest losses become important especially when dealing with the export of fresh flowers to distant and foreign market. Therefore, patient, soft and expert handling of flowers is of utmost importance after harvest.

The post harvest quality of flowers depends upon mainly three factors.

  1. Pre harvest factors
  2. Harvest factors
  3. Post harvest factors

Pre-Harvest Factors 

Genetic or inherent makeup:

Post harvest lasting quality of flower species and cultivars vary considerably due to differences in their genetic make-up. Gladiolus varieties White Prosperity, Sancerre, Suchitra, Eurovision, Nova Lux, Rose Supreme and Trader Horn possess the better vase-life.

Growing conditions:

Most cut flower crops require well-lighted conditions. On the contrary, too high light intensities cause scorching and dropping of leaves and abscission of petals. Flower crops are also specific in their temperature requirements Flowers also require adequate nutrients for good longevity. High nitrogen doses should be avoided as they increase susceptibility to diseases. For example, iron deficiency is commonly observed in gladiolus in north India, causing heavy yield losses. Flowering crop should also be grown away from the industries which release toxic effluent, gases, damaging the foliage as well as flowers. Flowers damaged by pathogens, insects and pests also show high ethylene production resulting in poor vase-life.

Harvest Factors

The most important factors for harvest are when, how and where—“when” the plant material will reach the optimum  stage of development and  “when” during the day to harvest. Each plant material has its own best harvest stage and this can vary depending on the use of, and market for, the plant material. Materials for preserving usually are  harvested more mature than those for fresh, wholesale markets. Some general rules of thumb for when to harvest are: spike type flowers— harvest when one-fourth to one-half of the individual florets are open; daisy type  flowers— harvest when flowers are fully open. The other “when” is, when is the best time of day for harvesting flowers. The best time is the coolest part of the day and when there is no surface water from dew or rain on the plants.

Right stage, method and time of harvesting of flowers are of considerable importance to ensure their long vase-life. The stems should be cut with sharp knives or secateurs. Hardwood stems should always be given slanting cut to expose maximum surface are to ensure rapid water absorption. The flowers of dahlia and poinsettia release latex upon cutting. To overcome such problem, stems should be given a dip in hot water (80-900C) for a few seconds.

The flowers of rose, carnation, gladiolus, tuberose, daffodils, lily, iris, freesia and tulip should be harvested at bud stage since their buds continue to open in water.. The flowers of snapdragon, Harvesting of flowers at bud stage is always preferred as their buds have long vase-life, are less sensitive to ethylene, easy to handle during storage and transport and are less prone to diseases and pests.

Post Harvest Factors 

 Water relations:

The termination of life of the harvested flowers depends on water uptake and transport, water loss and the capacity of the flower tissue to retain its water. A water deficit and wilting develop, when the transpiration exceeds absorption of water. The rate of water uptake of cut flowers depends on transpiration pull, temperature and composition of solutes . Disruption of water columns in stem vessels by air embolism and resistance to water flow in stems, also develop water deficit. Acidification of water and addition of wetting agent and flower food in the holding solution markedly improve water uptake of cut flowers.


The rate of respiration depends on quantity of carbohydrates available in the harvested flowers, temperature and the use of certain chemicals to regulate it. With higher temperature, there is faster rate of respiration and burning of the tissue. Consequently, the life of flowers is shortened.

Relative humidity:

It has, bearing on the transpiration rate. Higher the humidity in the air, less is the transpiration rate and vice-versa.

Growth regulators:

Postharvest life of flowers can be controlled by growth regulators. Water relation changes associated with flower senescence are also influenced by growth regulators. Cytokinins delay senescence of some cut flowers. Depending upon the concentrations, GA in some cases promotes longevity of flowers, while this is also used in bud opening solution. The IAA promotes ethylene production of isolated carnation petals. In contrast, the senescence and abscission of poinsettia flowers is delayed by auxin.

Preservative solutions:

Preservatives in the form of tablets or powder are prepared from a mixture of chemicals-sugars, germicides, salts and growth regulators. Various types of conditioners are sugar and biocide, antiethylene compound, and hydrated compound. The flowers like gladiolus, carnation, chrysanthemum and freesia are benefited most by the pretreatment. Antiethylene compounds in preservative solutions reduce the action of ambient ethylene as well as autocatalytic production of ethylene by fresh cut flowers. Fresh cut flowers responding to silver thiosulphate are carnation, orchids, gypsophila, gladiolus, gerbera, snapdragon, alstromaeria, agapanthus, anemone and sweet pea. Greatest improvement in cut flower quality and longevity is obtained when DICA or DDMH were combined with sucrose.

Precooling and storage:

Precooling is essential for removing field heat from flowers. This is done either by forced air cooling or hydrocooling to bring down temperature from 200-300C to 10C in a relatively short period. Other methods are room cooling and vacuum cooling.  Flowers can be stored for a longer period at low temperature. There are two methods of cold storage-wet and dry. Wet method is short-term storage, in which cut stems are dipped in water. Dry storage is more labour-intensive method and costly. The controlled atmosphere based on reduction of respiration rates, conservation of respirable substrates during, storage, and delay in ethylene-triggered changes cause senescence. It involves the use of increased level of CO2 and decreased levels of O2 in the atmosphere, low storage temperature and prevention of the build-up of endogenous ethylene.

Packing and transporting:

Packaging ensures garden fresh of flowers to the consumers. Lower rate of transpiration, respiration and cell division during transportation, are essential for long storage life and keeping quality. Before packing, flowers should be dried. They should be treated with systemic insecticides and miticides Packing must ensure protection of flowers against physical damage, water loss and external conditions detrimental to transported flowers. Boxes made of corrugated fibre boards are good. Flowers sensitive to geotropic bending must be transported in an upright position. The flowers should be transported at an optimal low temperature. The relative humidity of the air during precooling and shipment of cut flowers should be maintained at the level of 95-98%. Lack of light during prolonged transportation particularly at high temperature causes yellowing of leaves in many flowers. Shipment of flowers is usually done by truck, air and sea. For short distance and time period shorter than 20 hr, cut flowers may be transported in insulated trucks without refrigeration after precooling and proper packing. Air shipment is quickest and usually the temperature is not controlled during the flight The flowers should be pulsed with STS prior to air shipment  

Further, Whether you grow fresh flowers for the local farmers’ market and retail florist or have a large operation that sells truckloads to the national wholesales market, you need to move your product from the field to your consumers in a manner that ensures a high quality product. Below are the top 10 reasons why flowers do not last:

  1. Food depletion
  2. Attacked by bacteria and fungi
  3. Normal maturation and aging
  4. Wilting—water stress and xylem blockage
  5. Bruising and crushing
  6. Fluctuating temperatures during storage and transit
  7. Color change—bluing
  8. Accumulation of ethylene
  9. Poor water quality
  10. Sub optimal cultural practices or conditions


Tips to improve the post harvest life and quality of cut flowers

Precooling: Precooling is a treatment given to flowers to remove the field heat immediately after harvest. It can be done with ice cold water, cold water or forced air.

Conditioning/ hardening:  It restores the turgor of flowers wilted after harvest, storage or transport.  Conditioning is done with demineralized water supplemented with germicides and acidified with citric acid.  Some wetting agents like tween 20 @ 0.01-0.10% can be used for this purpose.

Impregnation: Loading of flowers with high concentration of silver nitrate or nickel chloride of cobalt chloride for a short period of time is known as impregnation. It is helpful in reducing the attack of microbes and synthesis of ethylene. It is generally practice in crops like Gerbera, Carnation, Chrysanthemum and Gladiolus.

Pulsing: Treating the flowers with high concentration of sucrose and germicide for a short period of time, in order to improve the shelf life and to promote flower opening. Pulsing is beneficial especially for flowers destined for long storage period or long distance transportation.

Bud opening: Use of germicides, sucrose and hormonal solution to promote the opening of immature buds in crops like chrysanthemums, rose, carnation, gladiolus, and snapdragon.

Grading, bunching and packaging:  After harvesting the flowers should be graded according to various grades as per specification for local and distant market.  Then these should be pulsed and made into bunches of 5,10,20,50,100.  Cut flower should be packed in corrugated cardboard boxed or sleeves. Packaging must ensure protection of flowers against physical damage and for this cotton or news paper can be used as cushion.

Cold storage: After pre-cooling and pulsing the flowers can be stored at low temperature i.e. in cold store to regulate the flower market or to avoid the glut in the market.  Controlled atmospheric (CA) modified atmospheric (MA) or hypobaric (LP) storage method can be used to enhance the post harvest life of flower.

Transport: Flower should be transported in corrugated cardboard boxes.  The flowers which are sensitive to ethylene, ethylene scrubbers containing KMnO4 should be added to those boxes.  Some of the flowers are like gladiolus and snapdragon are sensitive to geotropic bending, so these should be transported in upright position.  Some of the flower crops show yellowing during transportation due to lack of light, therefore there should be a provision of light inside the transporting vehicle.

Holding: After pulsing and storage flowers are held in a solution containing sucrose, germicide ethylene inhibitor and growth regulator.  The flowers can be kept in holding solution either at wholesaler, retailer or consumer level.



P. Naveen Kumar

Directorate of Floricultural Research

Pusa, New Delhi-110 012