कि‍न्‍नू (सि‍ट्रस फल) उगाने की वि‍धि‍

Kinnow mandarin orange cultivationIn India, citrus fruits ranks third in production after banana and mango. Among citrus crops, mandarin orange (Kinnow mandarin, Nagpur, Khasi, Darjling) covers largest area followed by sweet orange (Musambi, Pineapple, Blood Red and Jaffa) and Acid lime. Among these, Kinnow mandarin bears highest place in production, productivity, juice content and fruit quality. In India, Kinnow is being grown in Punjab, Rajasthan, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu & Kashmir and Utter Pradesh.

The interest of farmers in adoption of Kinnow cultivation is increasing day by day due to suitable agro-climatic conditions, higher crop yield and demand in international market.

Nutrient Status of Kinnow

Table 1: Nutrients available in kinnow



Physiochemical

Quantity/100 gm

 Average Vitamin C (mg/100ml juice)

31.0

Calcium (mg/ 100 ml)

40.0

Iron (mg/ 100 ml)

0.4

Phosphorus (mg/ 100 ml)

18.0

Average TSS (%)

11.5

Average Acidity (%)

0.9

Average TSS/acid ratio

12.0 – 14.0 : 1

 

Cultivation Technology of Kinnow:

Propagation of kinnow

The propagation of mandarin orange is largely through seed, except the `Nagpur’ and `Emperor’ varieties, which are propagted by budding. Like other citrus species, the seed is polyembryonic. Therefore, while propagating by seed, the sexual seedlings, which are usually stunted, and poor are rogued out and the rest that are produced from the cells of the nucellus are allowed to grow. The seedlings, thus selected, are more or less uniform in growth and production. They are, however, late in bearing and remain tall and slender. Budded plants do not suffer from these defects. The kinnow mandarin is usually budded on rough lemon (jambhiri, Soh-myndong or jatli khatti) rootstock. The kinnow is also budded on the kharna khatta rootstock.

Plantation

The planting of kinnow should be done on the onset of monsoon from the middle of July up to end of September. The plantation of the wind breaks such as Shisham, Mulberry seeding, Mango, Jamun, Guava and Aonla etc. on the boundaries of orchard in double row helps to minimize the effect of strong winds..

Irrigation

Method of irrigation:

  1. Basin system:  Young plant to 7 – 8 years
  2. Flood irrigation: In grown up and old orchard
  3. Drip irrigation  : due to scarcity of water

Care should be taken that irrigation water does not come in direct  contact with trunks to avoid susceptibility to bark diseases. This can be avoided by providing earth mound around the  trunks  of the trees well below the stock scion union   

Table: 2 Quantity of water/ month in LPH drip irrigation in kinnow production

Age (yrs)

March

April

May

June

July

Aug.

Sep.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Jan.

Feb.

First yr.

3.5

5.8

7.2

7.5

6.9

6.6

5.4

4.0

2.4

1.5

1.5

2.4

Second yr.

8.2

13.0

16.2

16.9

15.5

14.9

12.1

9.0

5.4

3.4

3.5

5.4

Third yr

14.5

23.0

28.8

30.1

27.6

26.5

21.7

16.1

9.5

6.1

6.2

9.5

Fourth yr.

44.4

51.8

64.8

67.8

52.2

59.5

48.7

36.2

21.5

13.6

13.9

21.5

Fifth yr.

58.0

92.1

115.2

120.6

110.5

105.8

86.7

64.3

38.2

24.1

24.6

38.2

Sixth yr.

58.0

92.1

115.2

120.6

110.5

105.8

86.7

64.3

38.2

24.1

24.6

38.2

Seventh yr.

65.2

100.1

120.5

142.0

135.0

120.8

95.7

73.8

58.0

44.0

32.6

58.0

Time of irrigation:

March to June: One week interval

November to Feb: 15 days interval             

Mannuring and Fertilization

1. Pre-plant mannuring

Available organic manures should be applied and well incorporated into the soil before planting. This practice is widely adopted in many developing countries. Typically, a planting hole about 1metre in diameter and 1 metre deep is dug; compost, animal manure and green manure are mixed with the soil that has been dug out, and the mixture is then replaced in the hole before the tree is planted. Tree planting holes are not used in developed countries, because of scarcity of organic manure. On acid soils, limestone is usually added to the mixture for pH adjustment or, where organic manure is scarce, soil preparation consists simply of liming. On some alkaline soils in arid regions, pre-plant irrigation is often used to leach excess salts from the surface soil.Analysis of soil before planning to establish the orchard.                    

Table 3 : Recommanded fertiliser doses for different age of the plant

Age of the Tree

Dose per Tree

FYM (Kg)

Nitrogen (gm)

Potash (gm)

1-3 years

5-20

50-150

25-75

4-6 years

25-50

200-250

125-150

7-9 years

60-90

300-400

175-225

10 years and above

100

400-800

225-450

2 Post plant fertilizer application 

 Table 4 : Schedule of fertilizer application during the year

Jan. – Feb           

Full dose of FYM + one third nitrogen + Full dose Phosphorus  and  Potash

 April

One third of nitrogen (before flowering)

August

One third of nitrogen 

Micronutrients

 Zinc and Manganese

April – May           

Zinc sulphate (2.25kg. Zinc sulphate + 1.12 kg of lime 450 lit.of  water)    

October– Nov     

Zinc + Manganese (1.3 kg Zinc sulphate, 900g manganese sulphate, 675g lime,  450 gm urea in 450 lit of water)

Pruning of Kinnow

The pruning of citrus-trees begins in the nursery. All branches that start within a few centimetres of the union are removed, leaving about half a metre of clean straight stem with a few well-placed branches. All unwanted branches are removed once a month during the first year after planting, and once in two to three months in subsequent years. The bearing trees require little or no pruning. After the crop is picked, the branches touching the ground should be cut close to the laterals so that no stubs are formed. All diseased injured and crossing branches, water-sprouts and dead wood should be removed periodically

Harvesting Season of Kinnow in India 

Table 3: Harvesting season of kinnow in india

State

Start

Peak

End

J&K

Oct

Nov

Dec

H.P.

Nov

Jan

March

Haryana

Nov

Dec- Feb

Feb

Rajasthan

Dec

Jan

Feb

Punjab

Nov

Jan- Feb

March

Climate and Fruit Quality

  • In the hotter and more arid locations fruits developed more rapidly in weight, circumference and volume.
  • More in peel thickness and N content but well coloured having good flavour and satisfactory solid acid ratio and juice content

Climate and Physiological Disorders:

  • Interaction of climate and mineral nutritional bound physiological disorders are widely recognized. Trees showing ‘N’ deficiency symptoms produced few flowers irrespective of temperature.
  • No. of flowers increase with increasing Phosphorus content from 40-160 mg Kg-1 provided  sufficient leaf ‘N’ (3.0 %) content.
  • In arid regions citrus trees are highly prone to heat injury / sun burn, drying fruit, burning and defoliation of leaves, burning and death of bark & slightly discolouration of fruit skin.
  • High temperature and high intensity of solar radiation are two environmental factors causing injury to fruit and tree.
  • Wind induces abrasion injury on susceptible fruit (when small) due to rubbing of leaf against fruit causing lesions

Diseases and Pest of Kinnow

1. Gummosis / leaf fall / fruit rot

Symptoms : The disease occurs especially in the high rainfall areas. Gumming on the surface of the attacked bark. The bark shows conspicuous brown staining along with hardened masses of gum on the surface. The fungus produces blight symptoms on leaves.

Management : Resistant rootstocks like sour orange (Citrus aurantium), Poncirus trifoliate or its hybrids like citranges and Cleopatra mandarin cab be used. Proper drainage facilities are to be provided. Excess irrigation should be avoided. Healthy tree should be protected by protected by painting  with  Bordeaux mixture upto a height of about 50 to 75 cm above the ground level in the trunk once in a year.Two sprays with drenching either by Fosetyl-Al (2.5g/L) or Metalaxyl MZ-72(2.75g /1 water) covering the whole plant canopy and basin of affected plant at 40 days interval after onset of monsoon. For the control of gummosis, scraping of the affected parts followed by application of Metalaxyl MZ-72 paste.

2. Anthracnose / wither Tip/ Dieback of Kinnow.

Symptoms : The disease affects branches, the branches begin to wither from the tip downwards. The drying back gradually progresses downward with the leaves turning yellow, withering and drooping and gum formation on the stem.

Management :.Such trees may be thrice with Carbendazim 0.1 per cent or Captafol 0.2% after pruning. Drainage facilities should be improved. Trees should be properly irrigated. Periodical spraying with Bordeaux mixture 1.0 % or Ferbam or Zineb or Captan o.2 % gives good control. Zinc Sulphate, Copper Sulphate and lime mixture at 0.6: 0.2: 0.5 kg in 100 litres of water is also effective.

3. Greening of Kinnow

Symptoms : A diversity of foliar chlorosis occurs. A type of molting position, become leathery and develop prominent veins and dull olive green colour. Green circular dots are found on leaves. Many twigs become upright and produce smaller leaves. The side exposed to direct sunlight develops full orange colour but the other side remain dull olive green

Management :  Removal of affected and unproductive trees and by replanting disease free budded plants raised on rootstock.The insect vector can be controlled by spraying Monocroptophos 0.05 % at periodical intervals which help to check the spread of the disease.Tetracycline 500 ppm spray at fortnightly interval reduces the incidence by inhibiting the multiplication of the pathogen.


Authors:

Jyoti Kanwar

Ph.D scholar and SRF

Department of Horticulture, Agricultural Research Station

Karni Marg, Sriganganagar - 335001 

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