गुलाब उगाने की उन्नत तकनीक
The roses grow best in place where they get full sun at least for 5 hours in a day. Flowering season of rose is November to April. Rose plants start flowering after eight weeks of planting during the fowering season.
Any garden soil which is well drained is good for roses. Heavy rain water should not remain standing around the plants for a long time
Prepration of Beds or Pits:
Bed/pits should be prepared at least one month before planting. Most sutable time for bed prepration in plains is May or June.
Beds should be 60-90 cm deep. Fill pit with a mixture of soil and farm yard manure. Flood the bed with water to settle down the loose soil. Add more mixture of soil and manure for leveling the bed.
Planting can be done from August to March but most prefered time of planting is September to October. Planting should be done immediatly when the new plants arrive from the nursery. If due to some reason or other, it is not possible to plant immediatly then do not unpack the plants and keep them in cool place and sprinkle a little water over the plants, specially on the roots. Before planting remove all dried, dead, damaged and diseased twings, leaves and damaged root comming out of earth ball etc with sharp secateur.
Planting late in the afternoon is considered best. There should be a distance of 75 cm between plants. Make a hole of about 30cm deep and 30 cm diameter in the bed, treat the soil taken out from hole with 5% Aldrin dust (about30 gm/hole). Plants with earth-ball is then set into hole with main stem in center and at level as it stood in nursery. Hold the bush firmly upright with one hand and then return treated soil to the hole around the roots and firm with hands and thorough watering immediately. If there is stron sunsine, the plants should be shaded for 3-4 days and leaves sprinkled with water
After Care in rose cultivation:
The newly planted rose need frequent watering till they establish and afterwards once or twice a week. Weeding and hoeing should be done with khurpi after every alternate watering.
The suckers which are different in shape and colour appears near the base on the stem or come from the roots under ground. They should be removed as soon as they appear. Also the flower buds or flowers from the new plant should be pinched in the beginning they attain good growth. Remove faded flowers regularly.
All roses require pruning in the second year of their planting and subsequent years. In northern plains of India, the best time for pruning is on or about 7th October. Basic principles of pruning, common to all type of roses are:
- Remove interlacing shoots which make the bush crowded.
- Remove dead, drying, diseased or insect infested and damaged shoots or leaves.
- Always make sharp cut at an angle of 45 degrees at about 5 mm above a strong healthy eye pointing outward.
- In hybrid Teas only 4-6 strong canes on all sides of bush should be retained.
- In vigorous varieties, canes should be cut back upto 30-45 cm length from the bud union point and each cane should have 5-6 bold eyes.
- In delicate varieties, pruning should be less severe and only light tipping is done.
After pruning, about 6-8 kg of well rotten farm yard manure is added per bush and mixed with the soil around the plant. 60gm per plant of a mixture of NPK in the ratio of 120-60-40 or Di-Am-Phosphate be applied around the plant (20 cm away from stem) and bed is irrigate. This Mixture may be applied after every six weeks (10 gm per plant/6 weeks)
Insect, Pests and Diseases:
Red-scale lives under reddish brown incrustation on the branches and sucks the juice of plant. Spray with 2 ml Folitheon or Cytheon or Metasystox in 1 litter of water once in April and again in September controls the infestation.
Rose Chaffer usually appear in July, August and eat away the leaves. Spray of 1 ml Malathion or rogor in 1 lt water is effective control.
White Ants Treat soil with a mixture of 10% BHC and 10% DDT at the rate of 30 gm per pit. 1 ml Aldrine in 1 lt. water may also be applied around the plant.
Digger wasp burrow into the stem pith through the cut ends immediately after pruning. Tamic is applied in the soil for control.
Digger wasp Spray with 2 gm sulmite-75 in 1 lt water.
Die-back Spray with fungicide (0.2 Captan or copper oxychloride) soon after pruning
Powdery mildew Spray with 2 gm Karathane or Benlate or Bavistin in 1 lt. water
Black Spot spray with 2 gm Farbam or any other fungicide in 1 lt. water. Diseased leaves should be collected and burnt.