चने का फाउंडेशन और प्रमाणित बीज उत्पादन करने की तकनीक 

Gram or chickpea is leguminous crop and there are two distinct types of chickpea

Desi chick pea
  •  Coloured and thick seed coat.
  •  Brown, yellow, green and black.
  •  Small, angular and rough surface.
  •  Flower pink with anthocyanin pigment
  •  Some Desi variety have white flower with no anthocyanin pigment.
Kabuli chick pea
  • White or Beige – coloured seed
  • Thin seed coat, smooth seed coat surface.
  • White flower, lack of anthocyanin pigmentation on the Stem.
  • High level of sucrose and lower level of fibre      

General plant characteristics of Gram:

  1. Plant height generally varies from 30-70 cm.
  2. Lateral roots developed nodules with the symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria, capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen in plant-usable form.
  3. Nodules appear/visible after one month /30days after plant emergence.
  4. Confined to the top 15cm. of the surface.

Climatic Requirement:

  • Cool season food legume and grown as a winter crop in the tropics
  • Flowering is delayed under low temperature and also under short days.
  • Sensitive to high (max. daily temp.> 35 ºC)
  • Sensitive to low (mean of maximum and minimum daily temp. < 15 ºC at reproductive stage.
  • Both extreme leads to flower drop and reduce pod set.

Minimum Standards for foundation and certified seed in chick pea: 

S. No.

Parameter

Seed class

Foundation

Certified

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

Isolation Distance (m)

No. of field Inspections

Germination (including hard seed) %

Pure seed (%)

Inert matter (%)

Plant affected by seed borne diseases %

Off type plants (%)

Other crop seeds (number/kg)

Other distinguishable variety seeds (number/kg)

10

02

85

98

02

0.1

0.1

Nil

05

05

02

85

98

02

0.2

0.2

05

10

Seed Production Technology of Gram:

Crop season and sowing Time:

Chickpea is grown in Rabi (Post rainy season) following a Kharif  cropThe sowing is done in the month of October or November . Late sowing (Dec.-Jan.) should be avoided as late sowing crop may experience moisture stress and high temperature at the critical stage of pod filling, leading to reduced yield and seed quality.

Isolation distance:

Isolation of a seed crop is done by maintaining a distance from other nearby fields of the same crop and other contaminating crops is 10 m. for foundation seed & 05m for certified seeds.

Suitable soil type:

  • Coarse-textured sandy to fine textured deep black soils.
  • Best suited soils are deep loams or silty clay loams.
  • PH range from 6.0 to 8.0.
  • Saline soil and fields with a high water table are not suitable for chickpea.

Field Preparation:

  • The land should not be ploughed to fine tilth soil should be opened and be allowed some time for aeration.
  • The field should have loose tilth and good drainage.
  • The stubble and debris from the previous crop should be removed. So that pathogen that causes root diseases such as collar rot cannot harbour.

Sowing of chickpea:

  • Sowing is usually done on conserved soil moisture.
  • A pre sowing irrigation may be needed if the available soil moisture is not adequate for germination.
  • Kabuli chick pea should never b e irrigated immediately after sowing, particularly in deep black soils.
  • Kabuli chick pea have thin seed coat and deteriorate faster as compared to desi type.

Sowing depth of gram:

A depth of 5-8 cm. seems to ideal for the emergence of chick pea.

Spacing in chickpea seed production:

  • Line sowing is a must in the crop grown for seed production, as it facilitates inter culture operations, roughing and field inspection.
  • Row to Row – 30cm.
  • Plant to plant – 10cm.
  • Plant population – 33 plants/m2 or 3, 30,000 plants/ha.
  • Row spacing for Kabuli – (45 - 60cm.) and irrigated crop for both Desi & Kabuli.

Seed rate of chickpea:

It differs from variety to variety, depending on seed size:

Seed size (100 seed wt.) Seed Rate Varieties
Small (less than 20 g.) 50-60 kg/ha JG- 315
Medium (20-30 g.) 60-90 kg/ha JG-11,JG-130,JAKI-9218
Large (30-40 kg 90-120 kg/ha KAK-2, Vihar
Extra large (> 40gm.) 120-150 kg/ha JGK-3

 Seed Treatment:

  • The seed should be treated with fungicides (2g Thiram +1g Carbendazim / 1 kg of seed)
  • PSB – Phosphorus Solubilising Bacteria – improving availability of phosphorus to plant
  • First time chick pea grown, the seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium culture.

Sequence of treatment :

  • Fungicide – PSB – Rhizobium.
  • Pesticide – Insecticide - Fungicide – Rhizobium culture / PSB

Fertilizer  Application in gram:

  • Doses of NPK are 20-30 kg. Nitrogen/ ha.,  40-60 kg. Phosphorus /ha., If low potassium content  17-25 kg. Potassium/ha. * NP and K should be given as basal dose *
  • Foliar spray 0.2% urea at flowering has been found beneficial in rainfed crops.

Irrigation:

Grown as rainfed crop-but 2 irrigation one at branching and second at pod filling stage are recommended for higher yield.

Weeding: Premergence Herbicides

  • Fluchloralin @ 1 kg. a.i/ha.
  • Pendimethalin  @ 1.0 to 1.5 kg. a.i/ha.

Mechanical and/ or manual weeding can be done where wide row spacing is done.

Plant protection:

Root disease ( Fusarium wilt, collar rot and dry rot ) are more prevalent in central and peninsular India.

1. Fusarium Wilt:

  • Use of resistant varieties (Eg. JG 11, JAKI-9218, JG 130, KAK 2, JAK 1 and JAK 2)
  • Seed Treatment with Tricoderma viride @ 4g/kg. of seed.

2. Collar rot:

  • High soil moisture, the presence of under decomposed organic matter on the soil surface, low soil pH and high temp (25 to 30 ºC favours diseases.
  • Treated seed with fungicides, follow long term crop rotations with cereals such as wheat, sorghum and millets, and remove undecomposed debris from the field before sowing.

Insect:            

  • Pod borer – (Helicoverpa armigeca )
  • Resistant varieties such as ICCV 10 and Vijay Suffer low damage.

1. Termites:

  • (Microtermes spp. and Odontotermes spp.)
  • Apply Thimet 10 G or Carbofuran 3G @ 1kg. a.i/ha. at the time of sowing in seed furrows or treat seed with Chloropyriphos 20EC @ 12.5 ml./kg. of seed.
  • Termite nests can be destroyed by drenching with Chloropyriphos ( 10 ml. in 1 litre of water ) after disturbing the mounds.

2. Cut Worm (Agrotis ipsilon)

Broad spectrum insecticides are effective in controlling cut worm.

Rouging:

Systematic examination of seed production fields and removal of undesirable plants that may contaminate the seed crop. Off type plants, other crop species (with similar seed size ), weed plants, parasite Weeds such as Cuscuta spp. and plants infected with seed-borne fungal diseases and Viruses should be removed from the seed field from time to time.

Harvesting & Threshing:

The crop should be harvested when leaves start to senesce and start shedding, pods turn yellow, plant are dry, and seed feels hard and ratties with in the pod. The plants can be dried in the sum for a few days to ensure that seed get dried well. Threshing can be done using commercially available power threshers.

Seed Processing:

Dried seeds are cleaned to remove the undesirable contaminants such as plant parts, soil particles, stones, weed seeds, other crop seed and shrivelled, broken or damage seeds. Cleaning and grading of seeds is first achieved by winnowing and then through a set of mechanical sieves. Air cleaners, and aspirators, indented separators, disc separators, gravity separators and  drum separators are frequently used. 

Seed Yield:

Average yield of gram varies from 15 to 20 q/ ha depending upon variety, soil and crop management.

Seed storage:

  • Seed moisture level is 10-12 % for short term storage (up to 8 months).
  • The seed should be stored in polythene lined gunny bags or in safe storage structures  (Metal bins or earthen containers).
  • The bag should be kept in rodent free room and placed in wooden plank (not more than 5 in a stack) and away from walls to avoid dampness to the seeds.            

Authors

O.N. Verma, Nirmodh Prabha and V.K. Soni

S.K.College of Agriculture and Research Station
Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya
Kawardha (Kabirdham) , Chhattisgarh-491995

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