Tomato

Season of seed sowing –June-Aug, Nov.-Dec.

Season of transplanting-. Aug.-Sept, Dec.-Feb

Season of Harvest- October-December, and April-june

The stage of harvesting depends upon the purpose to which the fruits are to be used.

  1. Dark green colour- Dark green colour is changed and a reddish pink shade is observed on fruit. Fruits to be shipped are harvested at this stage. Such fruits are then sprayed with ethylene 48 hours prior to shipping. Immature green tomatoes will ripen poorly and be of low quality. A simple way to determine maturity is to slice the tomato with a sharp knife. If seeds are cut, the fruit is too immature for harvest and will not ripen properly.
  2. Breaker stage- Dim pink colour observed on ¼ part of the fruit. Fruits are harvested at this stage to ensure the best quality. Such fruit are less prone to damage during shipment often fetch a higher price than less mature tomatoes.
  3. Pink stage- Pink colour observed on ¾ part of the fruit.
  4. Reddish pink- Fruits are stiff and nearly whole fruit turns reddish pink. Fruits for local sale are harvested at this stage.
  5. Fully riped- Fruits are fully riped and soft having dark red colour. Such fruits are used for processing. Fruits are normally harvested early in the morning or evening. The fruits are harvested by twisting motion of hand to separate fruits from the stem. Harvested fruits should be kept only in basket or crates and keep it in shade. Since all the fruits do not mature at the same time, they are harvested at an interval of 4 days. Generally there will be 7-11 harvests in a crop life span.

Brinjal

Season of seed sowing – Jan-Feb, May-Jun, Oct-Nov.

Season of transplanting- Feb-March, Jun- July,and Jan.

Season of Harvest- April-June, Sept.-Nov, March-May

The fruits become ready for first picking in about 120-130 days of seed sowing depending on the variety. The harvesting of the fruits should be done as soon as it attains a good size and colour.Fruits are harvested when they become greenish yellow or bronze and their flesh turns dry and tough. Pressing the thumb against the side of the fruit can indicate the maturity of the fruit. If the pressed portion springs back to its original shape, the fruit is too immature. Some portion of the calyx and the stem-end is retained on the fruit during harvesting. Since all the fruits do not  mature at the same time, the fruits are harvested at an interval of 8-10 days.

chilli,

Season of seed sowing-  Nov-Jan, May-June.

Season of transplanting- Jan.-March, June-July.

Season of Harvest- April-June, Sept.-Nov.

In chilli, first picking should be done at green stage to stimulate further flush of flowers and fruit set. Flowering begins 1–2 months after transplanting taking another month for green fruits. Chilli for vegetable purposes is generally harvested at fully grown green stage, whereas for dried chilli fruits at red, ripe stage are ideal. For pickles, chilli can be picked either at green or ripe stage. The ripe fruits are ready for picking at 1–2 weeks intervals after first harvest. The harvesting continues over a period of 3 months depending on cultivar, season and cultural practices.

Potato

Season of tuber planting- Sept.-Nov, Dec.-Feb

Season of Harvest- Jan-March, March-April

The main crop is ready for harvest within 75-120 days of planting depending upon the area, soil type and variety sown when, majority of the leaves turn yellow-brown. At this stage, the tops are cut near the ground level. The potatoes are dug out from the field by ploughing after 8-10 days.

Okra

Season of seed sowing- Feb.-March, June-July

Season of Harvest- March-June, Aug.-Nov.

The fruits are ready for harvest in about 45-60 days after seed sowing depending upon variety and season. Size of the pod and stage at which it is harvested varies with variety/hybrid and market preference. Generally, medium sized (7-10 cm long) tender pods, which can be easily snapped from the plant, are harvested. As all the fruits do not mature at the same time, harvesting is carried out once in 3-4 days. Frequent picking promotes fruit development and prevents the pods from growing too large.

Cauliflower

Season of seed sowing- June, July-Sept, Sept.-Oct

Season of transplanting- July, Aug.-Oct, Oct.-Nov

Season of Harvest- Nov.-Jan, Jan.-March

Is ready for harvest at 90-120 days after planting. Depending upon the variety the curds should be harvested promptly when they are of full size but still compact, white and smooth. Delayed harvesting results in the curds turning loose, leafy and ricey. The curds are harvested by bending them and cutting off the stalk well below the curd with a sharp cutting knife, sickle or khurpi.

Cabbage

Season of seed sowing- Sept.-Oct

Season of transplanting- Oct.-Nov

Season of Harvest- Dec.-March

Cabbage ready for harvest at 90-120 days after planting. Cabbage should be harvested promptly when the heads are firm and mature. Delaying harvest, even a few days beyond maturity can result in split heads and increased incidence of field disease. Harvesting immature heads, however, reduces yield, and the heads are too soft to resist handling damage. Immature heads also have a shorter shelf life than mature heads. The head is harvested by bending it to one side and cutting it with a knife. The stalk should be cut flat and as close to the head as possible, yet long enough to retain two to four wrapper leaves.

Brussels sprouts

Season of seed sowing- Aug-Sept, Feb-April

Season of transplanting- Nov-Des.

Season of Harvest- Des-Jan.

Sprouts are harvested on attaining maximum size and compactness. Generally 3–6 harvestings are done. The time of harvesting can be manipulated to some extent by removing the growing point after first harvesting.

Broccoli

Season of seed sowing- Mid-Sept–early-Nov

Season of transplanting- Nov-Des, Apr-may.

Season of Harvest- Des-Jan.

Harvest when flower head is fully developed, but before the flower begin to open into bright yellow flowers. Cut 6 to 7 inches below the flower head. Side heads will develop after the head in cut and also can be harvested as they developed.

Reddish

Season of seed sowing- April-Aug, Sept-Oct, Nov.-Jan

Season of Harvest- May-Sept, Nov.-Jan, Dec.-March

The edible roots become ready for harvesting in about 25-60 days depending on the variety. The temperate types reach harvest maturity 25-30 days after seed sowing while tropical varieties require longer period. At the time of harvest, the roots should not be pithy or solid. Crop is harvested manually by uprooting individual plant. A light irrigation may be given a day before harvesting to facilitate lifting of roots.

Carrot

Season of seed sowing- Aug-Oct.

Season of Harvest- Dec.-March.

The edible roots become ready for harvesting in about 100-120 days depending on the variety. At the time of harvest the roots should not be pithy or solid. A light irrigation may be given a day before harvesting to facilitate lifting of roots. Crop is harvested manually by uprooting individual plant. Carrots for processing purpose are left in the ground for a longer period. After harvesting the green tops are cut and the carrots are separated and washed.

Turnip

Season of seed sowing- Oct.-Nov.

Season of Harvest- Dec.-March.

The edible roots become ready for harvesting in about 45-70 days depending on the variety. At the time of harvest, the roots should not be pithy or solid. The turnip roots should be harvested as soon as they attain marketable size of 5-10 cm in diameter. A light irrigation may be given a day before harvesting to facilitate lifting of roots. Crop is harvested manually by uprooting individual plant.

Beetroot

Season of seed sowing- Oct.-Nov.

Season of Harvest- Dec.-Feb.

Beetroots become ready for final harvesting within 8 to 10 weeks. Less developed roots are also used which are available at last thinning. When such roots are uprooted, the remaining beetroot gets more space for development.

Maturity indices of vegetable crops.

Tomato  Seeds slipping when fruit is cut, or green colour turning pink.
Chilli Green fully mature before they change green to red
Brinjal Desirable size reached but still tender
Potato Tops beginning to dry and topple clown
Okra Desirable size reached and the tips of which can be snapped readily
Cauliflower Curd compact
Cabbage when the heads are firm, mature and solid.
Brussels sprouts when they are firm in size starting from the bottom
Broccoli Bud cluster compact
Radish and carrot Large enough and crispy
Turnips  Root diameter and freedom from woodiness are maturity indices for turnips
Beetroot  Beet tops at this time make excellent tender greens

 


Author

Vijay Kumar Suryawanshi

(M.Sc. (Ag.) Horticulture), IGKV, Raipur (C.G)

Rural Agriculture Extension Officer, Agriculture Department, District Bilaspur (C.G.) 495001

 Email- This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.